The political rule of Islam begins with the nascent community of followers in Medina, during the early 7th century and extends throughout the world by the mid 13th century. This article traces the stages of the Islamic political rule based on the reading Muhammad and the Caliphate by Fred. M. Donner.
The prophet Muhammad was a charismatic leader from Mecca who established the religion of Islam. His followers constantly faced danger from his own tribe, the Quraysh in Mecca, hence in 620 he gradually sent them to Yathrib and in 622 he joined his community of believers. By this time, the community was an autonomous religio-political Islamic community in Medina, formally called Yathrib. From 622 to 632 Muhammad extended Medina’s influence into other parts of Arabia. Likewise in 630, Mecca surrendered without bloodshed. By his death in 632, his community comprised of western Arabia and some parts of Hedjaz, Nejd, eastern Arabia, Oman and Yemen.