Since Arabic was the vehicle of Islamic learning , laws were created in Arabic based on the content of the Quran and the hadiths . Legal scholars, called fuqaha, studied at the madrasas . This eventually led to the development of the court system which presided over all aspects of human life. In addition to that, the significance of witnesses, seals, signatures and written documentation was emphasized and documents were being stored in archives as evidence.
Consequently the development of a legal system and its relationship with imperial administration and bureaucracy had a significant impact on the Islamic civilization. The legal institution established the notion of orthodoxy and any challenge to the established laws was considered heresy. The five point classification scale and the ethical scale were established that dictated what was mandatory, forbidden and everything in between for Muslims. In addition to that, the legal institution relied on the state for support and the state relied on the legal institution for legitimacy . Arabic was adopted as the language for imperial administration and bureaucracy. Accountants, scribes, secretaries and other professionals in the administration benefited from master to pupil transfer of skills and knowledge . However, the knowledge was not available to all. The social class of religious scholars developed into an elite social class with immense power. Under the Abbasid rule, the bureaucracy was growing rapidly and secretaries, scribes and other writers became very powerful . Consequently vast quantities of writing utensils such as papyrus, parchment and later paper were demanded by the administrative bureaucracy .