Civilization is the process of the transformation of human behaviour and perception in a particular direction and culture is the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behaviour that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations . Islamic civilization spans the globe and the major cultural groups that contributed to its formation are Arab, Persian and Turkic.
Islamic civilization originated in Arab culture because Islam was introduced to the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula. Since the Quran, which was delivered in Arabic, is considered the word of God by Muslims , the centrality of the Quran and the role of Arabic has had a profound influence on Islamic civilization. Since Arabic became a scriptural language, it was considered a prestigious language . The core Islamic beliefs and practices came from the Quran and laws from the Quran were used to create a legal system . Furthermore, Arabic became to language of administration and the vehicle of learning . Arab culture’s strong oral and aural traditions coupled with the centrality of the Quran and Arabic lead to the development of the “science of recitations” (ilm al-qiraat ), and honour and prestige was attributed to individuals, called hafiz, who memorized the Quran . Moreover, Arabic script was adopted as the new script for several languages such as Persian, and the Turkic languages and Urdu adopted Arabic script through Persian influence as well as incorporated religious, philosophical, and scientific terminology from Arabic . Furthermore, literary works from other languages were translated into Arabic and gradually a book culture emerged.
Arab culture emphasized architecture, crafts and calligraphy over representational arts. Consequently, writing as calligraphy was elevated to an art form as it was used to decorate a variety of things . Since Arab culture was a nomadic and tribal culture, the Umayyad caliphate was organized as an Arab tribal “kingdom”. They expanded Islamic rule by conquests, with an army of nomadic Arabs , spreading Islam to new regions. By contrast, the Abbasid caliphate was heavily influenced by Persian culture and new concepts such as authoritarian and monarchical traditions were incorporated into Islamic civilization.