The Main Cultures of the Islamic World and their General Contributions to the Formation of Islamic Civilization – Page 3 References


  1. Bloom, Jonathan M. Paper before Print: The History and Impact of Paper in the Islamic World. New Haven, CT: YaleUniversity Press, 2001
  2. Donner, Fred M. “Muhammad and the Caliphate: Political History of the Islamic Empire up to the Mongol Conquest.” In The Oxford History of Islam, edited by John L. Esposito, 1–61. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Online.
  3. Duiker, William J., and Jackson J. Spielvogel. World History, Vol. 1, To 1800. 3rd ed. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2001.
  4. Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of HarvardUniversity Press, 1991.,
  5. Robinson, Francis. “Knowledge, Its Transmission, and the Making of Muslim Societies.” In The Cambridge Illustrated History of the Islamic World, edited by Francis Robinson, 208–49. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1996.
  6. NMC 103 Lecture Notes by Professor Maria Subtelny
  7. Merriam-Webster Online (




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