A research area of modern physics that illustrates the modernity is the development and use of quantum mechanics to describe, study and predict nature. Quantum mechanics introduced some new concepts, sometimes radical, such as the dual nature of matter, which states that certain entities have wavelike and particle like properties. Using quantum mechanics, physicists portrayed the world as being a very unpredictable world with many controversies . They employed many probability functions to predict most likely events, such as the location of an electron in an atom rather than an exact location for that electron. By being able to understand the atom, physicists believed that they were engaged in a more “profound” understanding of the physical universe .
The twentieth century was a time of monumental change in several sectors of society. Many social changes occurred, which were radical and unthinkable, such as increase in and demand for women’s rights. For example women, white women, were allowed to work outside the home in professions such as secretaries. Furthermore, when the United States of America was battling in world war two, women were allowed to work jobs and shifts, such as late night shifts, from which they were previously barred. When in the nineteen forties, the United Nations enforced the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in which discrimination based on gender was denounced, women were further liberated. This ” social perspective characterized by departure from or repudiation of traditional ideas, doctrines, and cultural values in favour of contemporary or radical values and beliefs (chiefly those of scientific rationalism and liberalism)” is the essence of modernity.