Similarly, modern physics was developed by scientists, some of whom were not pedagogues, for example Albert Einstein. Einstein was not a typical teacher or professor as some of the other more well known physicists. By contrast, he worked as a patent clerk in Bern because he was unable to secure a teaching post after graduation. He contemplated on physics during the after work hours. Moreover, he was unknown to the scientific community for the most part of his early life. Einstein conducted many thought experiments to help him formulate his theories. He was unfamiliar with the scientific literature of the day when he proposed the theory of relativity.
Modern literature was modern because it forced its readers to comprehend its message in unconventional ways. The readers would be forced to read without the conventional aids and guides like narrators. “Sometimes modernist literary “instruction” begins with the disappearance of a textual crutch, such as the omniscient and trustworthy narrator upon whom we rely for guidance through a textual inferno … ” This technique allows the reader to analyse the text more and infer from the content, rather than have a narrator explain everything. “… In short, modernist literature demands that we approach it differently from the way we read other contemporary texts, such as the newspaper. Unless we do, we will miss half of its pleasure and most of its meaning. When we read books that are easy to understand and assimilate, we often forget that they are comfortable precisely because they share and confirm our pre-existing assumptions, and sometimes even our prejudices (literally “pre-judgments”) …”